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图片 | 2021年 3月 18日 星期四 01:37 BJT

Mars the wet planet

Wheel tread marks are left in the soil of Jezero Crater on Mars, as NASA's Mars rover Perseverance drives on Martian surface for the first time, in this March 4, 2021 image supplied to Reuters. Mars was once a wet world, with abundant bodies of water on its surface. But this changed dramatically billions of years ago, leaving behind the desolate landscape known today. So what happened to the water? Scientists have a new hypothesis.  NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

Wheel tread marks are left in the soil of Jezero Crater on Mars, as NASA's Mars rover Perseverance drives on Mmore

Wheel tread marks are left in the soil of Jezero Crater on Mars, as NASA's Mars rover Perseverance drives on Martian surface for the first time, in this March 4, 2021 image supplied to Reuters. Mars was once a wet world, with abundant bodies of water on its surface. But this changed dramatically billions of years ago, leaving behind the desolate landscape known today. So what happened to the water? Scientists have a new hypothesis. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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A tall outcropping of rock, with layered deposits of sediments in the distance, marking a remnant of an ancient, long-vanished river delta in Jezero Crater, are pictured in this undated image taken by NASA's Mars rover Perseverance from its landing site. Researchers said this week that somewhere between about 30% and 99% of it may now be trapped within minerals in the Martian crust, running counter to the long-held notion that it simply was lost into space by escaping through the upper atmosphere. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

A tall outcropping of rock, with layered deposits of sediments in the distance, marking a remnant of an ancienmore

A tall outcropping of rock, with layered deposits of sediments in the distance, marking a remnant of an ancient, long-vanished river delta in Jezero Crater, are pictured in this undated image taken by NASA's Mars rover Perseverance from its landing site. Researchers said this week that somewhere between about 30% and 99% of it may now be trapped within minerals in the Martian crust, running counter to the long-held notion that it simply was lost into space by escaping through the upper atmosphere. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021. "We find the majority of Mars' water was lost to the crust. The water was lost by 3 billion years ago, meaning Mars has been the dry planet it is today for the past 3 billion years," said California Institute of Technology PhD candidate Eva Scheller, lead author of the NASA-funded study published on Tuesday in the journal Science.  NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in more

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021. "We find the majority of Mars' water was lost to the crust. The water was lost by 3 billion years ago, meaning Mars has been the dry planet it is today for the past 3 billion years," said California Institute of Technology PhD candidate Eva Scheller, lead author of the NASA-funded study published on Tuesday in the journal Science.  NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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Portions of the Martian surface shot by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show many channels from 1 meter to 10 meters wide on a scarp in the Hellas impact basin, in this photograph taken January 14, 2011 and released by NASA March 9, 2011.  NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

Portions of the Martian surface shot by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show many channels from 1 meter to more

Portions of the Martian surface shot by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show many channels from 1 meter to 10 meters wide on a scarp in the Hellas impact basin, in this photograph taken January 14, 2011 and released by NASA March 9, 2011.  NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021. Early in its history, Mars may have possessed liquid water on its surface approximately equivalent in volume to half of the Atlantic Ocean, enough to have covered the entire planet with water perhaps up to nearly a mile (1.5 km) deep. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in more

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021. Early in its history, Mars may have possessed liquid water on its surface approximately equivalent in volume to half of the Atlantic Ocean, enough to have covered the entire planet with water perhaps up to nearly a mile (1.5 km) deep. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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An image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and released March 29, 2017 shows a mound that appears to have blocked the path of dunes as they move south (north is to the left in this image). The researchers suggested that a lot of the water did not actually leave the planet, but rather ended up trapped in various minerals that contain water as part of their mineral structure - clays and sulfates in particular.

This trapped water, while apparently plentiful when taken as a whole, may not provide a practical resource for future astronaut missions to Mars. NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

An image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and released March 29, 2017 shows a mound that appearsmore

An image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and released March 29, 2017 shows a mound that appears to have blocked the path of dunes as they move south (north is to the left in this image). The researchers suggested that a lot of the water did not actually leave the planet, but rather ended up trapped in various minerals that contain water as part of their mineral structure - clays and sulfates in particular. This trapped water, while apparently plentiful when taken as a whole, may not provide a practical resource for future astronaut missions to Mars. NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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The "Rolling Stones Rock," slightly larger than a golf ball and named after the rock band, is seen on the surface of Mars after it rolled about 3 feet, spurred by the thrusters on NASA's InSight spacecraft, November 26, 2018. "The amount of water within a rock or mineral is very small. You would have to heat a lot of rock to release water in an appreciable amount," Scheller said. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The "Rolling Stones Rock," slightly larger than a golf ball and named after the rock band, is seen on the surfmore

The "Rolling Stones Rock," slightly larger than a golf ball and named after the rock band, is seen on the surface of Mars after it rolled about 3 feet, spurred by the thrusters on NASA's InSight spacecraft, November 26, 2018. "The amount of water within a rock or mineral is very small. You would have to heat a lot of rock to release water in an appreciable amount," Scheller said. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in more

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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This image from the right Mast Camera (Mastcam) of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows rough spherical features on the surface of the planet in an area called 'Yellowknife Bay' in this NASA handout released January 15, 2013. These features are interpreted as concretions, implying they formed in water that percolated through pores in the sediment. Spherical concretions have previously been discovered in other rocks on Mars. NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS

This image from the right Mast Camera (Mastcam) of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows rough spherical features more

This image from the right Mast Camera (Mastcam) of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows rough spherical features on the surface of the planet in an area called 'Yellowknife Bay' in this NASA handout released January 15, 2013. These features are interpreted as concretions, implying they formed in water that percolated through pores in the sediment. Spherical concretions have previously been discovered in other rocks on Mars. NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in more

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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A view of the surface of Mars released by NASA on March 7, 2017, shows viscous, lobate flow features commonly found at the bases of slopes in the mid-latitudes of Mars, and are often associated with gullies. These are bound by ridges that resemble terrestrial moraines, suggesting that these deposits are ice-rich, or may have been ice-rich in the past. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

A view of the surface of Mars released by NASA on March 7, 2017, shows viscous, lobate flow features commonly more

A view of the surface of Mars released by NASA on March 7, 2017, shows viscous, lobate flow features commonly found at the bases of slopes in the mid-latitudes of Mars, and are often associated with gullies. These are bound by ridges that resemble terrestrial moraines, suggesting that these deposits are ice-rich, or may have been ice-rich in the past. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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Two geologically young craters are seen on the surface of Mars, March 18, 2020. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

Two geologically young craters are seen on the surface of Mars, March 18, 2020. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University ofmore

Two geologically young craters are seen on the surface of Mars, March 18, 2020. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in more

The surface of Mars directly below NASA's Mars Perseverance rover is seen using the Rover Down-Look Camera in an image acquired February 22, 2021.   NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via REUTERS
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Cliffs of ancient ice are seen on the surface of Mars, featuring brown dusty cliff walls and light blue ice, August 15, 2020. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

Cliffs of ancient ice are seen on the surface of Mars, featuring brown dusty cliff walls and light blue ice, Amore

Cliffs of ancient ice are seen on the surface of Mars, featuring brown dusty cliff walls and light blue ice, August 15, 2020. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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A field of barchan sand dunes appears turquoise blue on the surface of Mars in this enhanced image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, January 24, 2018. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

A field of barchan sand dunes appears turquoise blue on the surface of Mars in this enhanced image taken by thmore

A field of barchan sand dunes appears turquoise blue on the surface of Mars in this enhanced image taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, January 24, 2018. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover snaps a self-portrait at a site called Vera Rubin Ridge on the Martian surface in February 2018 in this image obtained on June 7, 2018.   Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS

NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover snaps a self-portrait at a site called Vera Rubin Ridge on the Martian surface in more

NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover snaps a self-portrait at a site called Vera Rubin Ridge on the Martian surface in February 2018 in this image obtained on June 7, 2018.   Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS
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A circular depression on the surface of Mars is pictured in his image acquired on Jan. 5, 2015 by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), provided by NASA. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS

A circular depression on the surface of Mars is pictured in his image acquired on Jan. 5, 2015 by the High Resmore

A circular depression on the surface of Mars is pictured in his image acquired on Jan. 5, 2015 by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), provided by NASA. NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Handout via REUTERS
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NASA's Mars rover Curiosity's hole drilled into a rock target, "Cumberland," on Mars on May 19, 2013 is shown in this NASA photo. NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has found carbon-containing compounds in samples drilled out of ancient rock, the first definitive detection of organics on the surface of Earth's neighbor planet, scientists said on Tuesday.    REUTERS/NASA/Handout via REUTERS

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity's hole drilled into a rock target, "Cumberland," on Mars on May 19, 2013 is shown more

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity's hole drilled into a rock target, "Cumberland," on Mars on May 19, 2013 is shown in this NASA photo. NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has found carbon-containing compounds in samples drilled out of ancient rock, the first definitive detection of organics on the surface of Earth's neighbor planet, scientists said on Tuesday.    REUTERS/NASA/Handout via REUTERS
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An image from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity shows the surface of the planet with inclined layering known as cross-bedding in an outcrop called "Shaler" on a scale of a few tenths of a meter, or decimeters (1 decimeter is nearly 4 inches) in this NASA handout released January 15, 2013.    NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS

An image from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity shows the surface of the planet with inmore

An image from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity shows the surface of the planet with inclined layering known as cross-bedding in an outcrop called "Shaler" on a scale of a few tenths of a meter, or decimeters (1 decimeter is nearly 4 inches) in this NASA handout released January 15, 2013.    NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Handout via REUTERS
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The surface of the planet Mars inside Gale's Crater is shown as NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drives toward a flat rock with pale veins that may hold clues to a wet history on the planet in this NASA handout photo released January 15, 2013.  NASA/Handout via REUTERS

The surface of the planet Mars inside Gale's Crater is shown as NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drives toward a flmore

The surface of the planet Mars inside Gale's Crater is shown as NASA's Mars rover Curiosity drives toward a flat rock with pale veins that may hold clues to a wet history on the planet in this NASA handout photo released January 15, 2013.  NASA/Handout via REUTERS
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